**Chapter-1|Electric Charges and Fields | NCERT 12th Physics:**

**Area Vector:**

The vector associated with every area element of a closed surface is taken to be in the direction of the outward normal. Thus the area element vector ∆S at a point on a closed surface is equal to ∆Sn∧, where ∆S is magnitude of area element and n^ is a unit vector in the direction of outward normal at the point.

**Note:- **Area vector is always perpendicular to the surface.

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