This post contains 40 essential questions related to CBSE Class 12 Geography and are very important for Board Exam 2023.
Each question carries 5 marks in this article. All the questions are relatively broad and require a detailed and in-depth understanding of the subject.
CBSE Class 12 Geography Most Important Questions and Answers
Q1 Give brief details of the evolution of Human Geography through the corridors of time.
- Colonial Period- Age of exploration and discoveries which led to regional analysis. It was highlighted that all the regions were part of the earth as a whole and hence any study regarding a region gives an understanding of the earth in a comprehensive manner.
- In the 1930s through the Inter war period- Focus was to identify the causes behind the uniqueness of a region. Now due to technical advancement, it was felt that each and every region has some unique features and that is to be highlighted to have a proper understanding of that region.
- The late 1950s to late 1960s- The use of statistical techniques and digital devices in geographic studies led to the Quantitative revolution. Generalization became more comprehensive and scientific due to the advancement of technological aspects of geographic studies.
- In the 1970s- radical and behavioral aspects also started taken into account to address various socio-economic issues existing worldwide.
- The 1990s- the age of post-modernism that aims at identifying the local context of incidents and events. It says that each and every issue is having its spatial context and hence, local aspects must be taken into account while considering any geographic challenge.
Q2 Define Human Geography. Discuss its nature.
Ans: Human Geography has been defined by different scholars. A few of them can be referred to under According to Ratzel human geography is the synthetic study of the relationship between human societies and the earth’s surface. While Ellen C. Semple defines human geography as the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable earth.
So to sum up Human Geography can be defined as the mutual interaction between man and the environment. Human Geography deals with the environmental concern in relation to human beings. As such, its nature is interdisciplinary. It derives various theories and concepts and content from natural Sciences like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Meteorology, Ecology, Astrophysics, Agricultural Science, etc. at the same time it also focuses on various aspects of human society in terms of polity, economy, social milieus, etc.
Q3 Human Geography is an interdisciplinary subject? Discuss.
Ans: Human Geography deals with the study of the environment in relation to a human being. Therefore, its content is interdisciplinary in nature. It focuses on both elements of nature, natural sciences, and the socio-cultural and economic dimensions of society as a whole. So, it has fetched out the theme, content, and subject matter from different branches of knowledge be it Botany, Zoology, Geology, Astrophysics, Cosmology, Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, Sociology, Psephology, Psychology, etc. However, it is evident to mention that the mechanism and methodology of studying Human Geography are different compared to the Natural sciences. But the incorporation of statistical tools and digital techniques, etc. have made geographic studies more reliable and precise. In fact, the vast canvas of nature is the playfield of human being wherein he has created a cultural landscape over time. Thus, it has established a functional link between all sorts of disciplines evolved to date.
Q4 Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world.
Ans. The factors are grouped into three categories:
(A) Geographical Factor
1. Availability of water:
- People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available for drinking, and for cattle, crops, industries, and navigation.
- E.g. it is because of this that river valleys are among the most densely populated areas of the world.
- People prefer living on flat plains and gentle slopes rather than on mountainous and hilly areas. This is because plain areas are favorable for the production of crops and to build roads and industries.
- Whereas, the mountainous and hilly areas are unfavorable for the development of transport networks, agriculture, and industries.
- E.g. The Ganga plans are among the most densely populated areas of the world while the mountainous zones in the Himalayas are sparsely populated.
- Areas with a comfortable climate, where there is not much seasonal variation have high populations.
- Whereas, extreme climates such as very hot or cold, deserts, and heavy rainfall are uncomfortable for human living and have a low population.
- E.g. Mediterranean regions are inhabited since early periods in history due to their pleasant climate.
- Fertile soils are important for agricultural and related activities. Therefore, areas that have fertile loamy soils have more people living in them as these can support intensive agriculture.
- E.g. Northern plains in India are the most densely populated.
(B) Economic Factors
- Areas with rich mineral deposits attract mining and industrial activities. Therefore, skilled and semi-skilled workers move to these areas for employment and make them densely populated.
- E.g Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is one such good example
- People migrate to the cities for better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, better means of transport and communication, and good civic amenities.
- Megacities of the world continue to attract a large number of migrants every year.
E.g. Delhi and Mumbai are the most densely populated cities in India.
- Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract a large number of people. These include not just factory workers but also transport operators, shopkeepers, bank employees, doctors, teachers, and other service providers.
- E.g the Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries.
(C) Social and Cultural Factors
- Some places attract more people because they have religious or cultural significance.
- E.g. in the USA people of different nationalities prefer their own regions where common culture and tradition are present.
2. Political unrest and wars:
- In the same way, people tend to move away from places where there is social and political unrest.
- E.g. Refugees from Ethiopia, Sudan, Sri Lanka, etc. have moved out from their own countries.
3. Government policies:
- Many a time government offer incentives to people to live in sparsely populated areas.
Q5 “90 percent of the world population lives in about 10 percent of its total land area, whereas the remaining 10 percent population resides in the 90 percent of its land area”. Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans: It is true that 90 percent of the world population lives in about 10 percent of its total land area, whereas the remaining 10 percent population resides in 90 percent of its land area. The factors which affect the distribution of the population in the world are:
- Cultural Factors- Traditions and culture of a place include the distribution of a population.
- People like to migrate to areas where common traditions and cultures are found.
- Physical Factors Relief, climate, soil, and mineral are the physical factors that determine the population of any place. Tibet is a region with a very less population, whereas the Indo-Gangetic plain is overpopulated.
- Means of Transport Regions with better facilities of means of transport lead to better economic conditions. This led to a thick population. The Mumbai-Pune Industrial region is the best example.
- Economic Condition Industrial and agricultural regions of the world are thickly populated. The industrial regions of India, the USA, Japan, UK is the examples.
Q6 Explain three economic and two social and cultural factors influencing the distribution of the population in the world.
Explain with examples the three economic factors influencing the population distribution in the world.
Ans: The three economic factors influencing the distribution of population are as follows:
- Minerals Areas with mineral deposits attract not only industries but also skilled and semi-skilled workers as they generate huge employment.
- Urbanization Urban centers offer better employment opportunities, education and medical facilities, and better means of communication which attract people.
- Industrialization Industrial belts provide job opportunities that attract not only factory workers, but also transport operators, shopkeepers, bank employees, doctors, teachers, and other service providers.
- Two social and cultural factors influencing the distribution of population are as follows:
- Religious and cultural significance Places having religious importance and cultural significance tend to attract a number of people due to they are densely populated. Social and political unrest Places where there is political turmoil and social unrest are not fit for living and people tend to move away from those areas. This is sparsely populated.
Q7 Describe in brief the different trends of population growth in the world from an early period to the present day.
Ans: The trends in population growth are as follows:
- In the early periods of history i.e. 8000 to 12000 years ago the populations grow at a slow rate.
- The population of the era was 8 million.
- The count of population in the first century was below 300 million.
- By 1600 AD world population increased to 0.5 billion as expansion in trade and the industrial revolution increased settlements.
- The world population touched 1 billion in 1830 due to advancements in the field of science and technology.
- In the next 100 years i.e. 1930, the population doubled to 2 billion due to improved medical, health, and sanitation facilities.
- In 1960, the population was 3 billion, in 1975; it was 4 billion after that one billion is added every 12 years.
Q8 Describe the important features of different Age-Sex Pyramid.
Ans: Expanding Population Pyramid-The age-sex pyramid is a triangular-shaped pyramid with a wide base and is typical of less developed countries.
These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates. Examples are Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Mexico.
- Constant Population Pyramid
- Age-sex pyramid is bell-shaped.
- Tapered towards the top.
- This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near-constant population.
- Australia is a very good example.
- Declining Population Pyramid:
- The pyramid has a narrow base and a tapered top.
- It is showing low birth and death rates.
- The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative.
- Japan, Russia, etc. are examples.
Q9 What is Human Development? Explain the four pillars of Human Development.
Ans. Human development is defined as the type of development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their life. Human development has four concepts such as equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment. These concepts are based on human development and are called pillars of human development such as Equity Which means the availability of equal opportunities to an individual. The available opportunities have equal access without any discrimination on grounds of gender, race, income and cast. A quality life is possible if access to resources is provided on the basis of being a human. Sustainability refers to continuity in the availability of opportunities. Human development is possible when opportunities are available to the present and future of a country. It must ensure that equal access to resources should be available to the next generation. Productivity-it refers to Human labour which is important for human development. A nation should invest in its productive labour by providing better healthcare facilities, education and training to them. Healthy and educated people can contribute more than unhealthy and illiterate people to development. Empowerment refers to having the power of making choices. Freedom and capabilities can enhance the power and capacity to make choices. Government can enhance empowerment through good government and people-oriented policies.
Q10.Write the characteristic of Dairy farming
(i) Dairy is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals.
(ii) It is highly capital intensive. Animal sheds, storage facilities for fodder, feeding and milching machines add to the cost of dairy farming.
(iii) Special emphasis is laid on cattle breeding, healthcare and veterinary services. (iv) It is highly labour intensive as it involves rigorous care in feeding and milching.
(v) It is practised mainly near urban and industrial centres which provide neighbouring market for fresh milk and dairy products.
(vi) The development of transportation, refrigeration, pasteurisation and other preservation processes have increased the duration of storage of various dairy products.
Q11. Define manufacturing. Classify manufacturing industries on the basis of size into three categories and explain the important characteristics of each type.
Ans: For definition and characteristics of manufacturing industries, Manufacturing means to make by hand, however now it includes goods made by machines. It is essentially a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods for higher value for sale in local or distant markets.
The four features of small scale manufacturing are as follows:
- It differs from household industries and large scale industries by its production techniques and place.
- This type of manufacturing uses local raw material, simple power driven machines and semi-skilled labour.
- It provides employment and raises local purchasing power.
- These manufacturing units have developed labour intensive techniques in order to provide employment to their population.
On the basis of their size, industries are classified into the following:
- It is the smallest manufacturing unit.
- The artisans use local raw materials.
- Part time labour or artisan’s family members produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of simple tools.
- Finished goods may be used for consumption in the same household or for sale in the local market.
Large Scale Manufacturing
- It requires a large market.
- It needs enormous energy and various raw materials.
- It also requires specialized workers, advanced technology, assembly line mass production and huge capital.
- Now, it has diffused to almost all over the world.
Q12. Write a short note on Silicon Valley.
Ans: ‘Silicon Valley’ technopolis :
The development of Silicon valley is attributed to the work of Frederick Terman, a professor and later, Vice-President of Stanford University at Palo Alto, in the northwestern part of Santa Clara country in California. In 1930s, Terman encouraged his students in electrical engineering to stay in the areas and establish their own companies.
One of the first companies was set up by William Hewlett and David Packard in a garage near the University campus. Now it is one of the world’s largest electronic firms. By the end of 1950s Terman had persuaded Stanford University to develop a special industrial park for such new high-tech firms. It created a hot house of innovation and generating a significant specialized work force and produce services.
It has sustained the continued agglomeration of high-tech electronics and has also attracted other high-tech industries. For example, nearly a third of all employment in biotechnology in the USA is located in California. Of this, over 90 percent is located in the San Francisco Bay area. Stanford University has been receiving increasing amount of donations from grateful companies, which runs into millions of dollars annually.
Q13. What are the two factors affecting tourism in the world? Explain each factor with example.
Ans: The two factors affecting tourism in the world are:
Demand: It is the prime factor for tourism. For last few Centuries, the demand for recreational and entertainment related activities have increased significantly. The living of the people is being standardized and the nature of work is creating demand for tourism.
Transport: The second important factor that affects the tourism sector is transport. The development in transport sector increases the demand for tourism. The easy accessibility to tourist locations and places encourages people to move or visit there. The expansion of air and rail network in the last decade has influenced tourism in increasing the number of tourists. Apart from this, the improvement in infrastructure as tourist spots has also increased demand for tourism.
Q14. ‘Outsourcing has resulted in opening up a large number of job opportunities in several countries.’ Analyze the statement with three suitable examples.
Ans: Outsourcing has resulted in the opening up of a large number of call centers in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It has created new jobs in these countries. Outsourcing is coming to those countries where cheap and skilled workers are available. These are also out-migrating countries. But with the work available in the form of outsourcing, the migration from these countries has come down.
This can be explained through these examples:
- The Knowledge Processing Outsourcing (KPO) industry includes research and development, e-learning, business research, etc.
- The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry involves highly skilled workers. It is information driven knowledge outsourcing.
- Data processing is another IT related service that employs large number of people in Asian countries.
Q15. How does the climate of a region attract tourists? Explain with examples from different regions of the world.
Ans: The climatic conditions of any region decide the demand for tourism. The climate of a region attracts tourists in the following ways:
- People from colder places want to visit warm places as tourist. That’s why the Mediterranean lands and Southern Europe, due to their considerable higher temperature, sunny days and less rainfall attract tourists from Europe.
- People from warmer regions love to visit colder places. That’s why tourists from Northern plains of India prefer to go to tourist places located in the Himalayan region or other hill stations.
- Climatic conditions of a region also provide some adventurous activities to do and attract tourists, e.g. ice skating and skiing in snowy regions, sea surfing on beaches, etc.
Q16. What is tourism? Analyze any four tourist attractions in the world.
Define the term tourism. Explain any four factors which attract tourists in the world.
Ans: Tourism is travel which is done for the purpose of recreation rather than business. It is one of the largest sectors of tertiary activities in terms of providing employment. It also generates the largest revenue. The four factors which attract tourists in the world are as follows:
Climate: The climatic conditions of any region decide the demand for tourism. People from colder places want to visit warm places and vice versa. People from hilly terrain want to visit beaches and people living around sea-shore wish to visit hilly areas, e.g. the Mediterranean lands and Southern Europe, due to their considerable higher temperature during winters attract tourists from Europe.
Landscape: Attractive environment like mountains, lakes, spectacular sea coasts and landscapes not completely altered by man are important tourist destinations.
History and Art: The archaeological site attracts more people because of its rich past. The area with historical remains like castles, forts, battle fields, palaces, religious monuments, excavation sites are tourist attractions.
Culture and Economy: For experiencing ethnic and local customs, tourists like to visit a place. Besides, if a region provides the needs of tourists at a cheap cost, it is likely to become very popular.
Q17. What is medical tourism? Explain the scope of medical services for overseas patients in India.
Ans: When medical treatment is combined with international tourism activity, it leads itself to what is commonly known as medical tourism. The scope of medical tourism for overseas patients in India is as follows:
- In 2005, about 55,000 patients from USA visited India for treatment. In this way, India has emerged as the leading country of medical tourism in the world.
- It brings foreign currency to India.
- World class hospitals with latest technology are located in metropolitan cities of India. These hospitals cater to patients all over the world.
- This kind of tourism brings abundant benefits to developing countries like India. Therefore, medical tourism has wide scope in India.
Q18. ‘Services are very important aspect for economic development of a country.’ Analyze the statement by explaining five components of a service sector.
Ans: Service sector is very important for the development of economy in the world. It is related to all kinds of services like education, health, welfare, business services, etc in exchange of payments. This sector also provides employment to a large number of people.
The major components of services are:
- Business services like advertising, legal services, public relations and counseling.
- Finance, insurance and real estate includes banking services.
- Wholesale and retail trading with the producers and consumers.
- Transport and communication such as railway, roadway, shipping, airline services, etc.
- Entertainment and mass media such as television, radio, films, magazines and newspapers.
Q19. Describe the journey of development of land transport from the days of humans a carriers and the cable ways of today.
Ans: Land transport is an important and useful mode of transport.
In older days, human and animals were important carriers. For example, Palanquin (palki/doli) was used to carry brides by four persons (Kahars in North India). Later, animals were used as means of transport. For example, mules, horses, camels, oxen, etc were used in rural areas. With the invention of the wheel, the use of carts and wagons became important.
The 18th century marks the revolution in transport which came about only after the invention of the steam engine. In the 19th century, railways became the most popular and fastest form of transport with the opening of the first public railway line in 1825 between Stockton and Darlington in Northern England.
In the USA, the development of railways also facilitated commercial grain farming, mining, and manufacturing in the continental interiors of the country. On the other hand, the invention of the internal combustion engine revolutionized road transport in terms of road quality and vehicles (motor cars and trucks) flying over them. The newer forms of land transportation have emerged in recent times. It includes pipelines, ropeways, and always. These are faster and more efficient as compared to other means of transport.
Q20. ‘Trans-Canadian railway line is considered as the economic artery of Canada.’ Support the statement with suitable examples.
Which is the longest trans-continental railway of North America? Describe its any four features.
Describe the significance of ‘Trans-Canadian Railway’.
Ans: The longest trans-continental railway line in North America is Trans-Canadian Railway line. It covers a distance of 7050 km, running from Halifax in the East to Vancouver on the Pacific Coast.
The Trans-Canadian railway line is considered the economic artery of Canada due to the following reasons
(i) It connects the important industrial cities of Montreal, Ottawa. Winnipeg and Calgary. Goods and people can be easily transported to and from these economic centres with the railways
(ii) It connects Quebec-Montreal industrial region with the wheat but of Prairie region. Thus, raw materials and finished products are transported with these railways.
(iii) The line also connects the Coniferous forest region in the North to the Quebec Montreal and the Prairies. All these regions have become complementary to each other and they support economic activities.
(iv) A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunderbay (Lake Superior) connects this rail line with one of the most important waterways in the world. This is used for exporting various products
Q21. Name the longest trans-continental railway of the world. Describe it’s any four features.
Describe the significance of “Trans-Siberian’ Railway.
Ans: Trans-Siberian railway is the longest trans-continental railway of the world. The TransSiberian railways runs from St. Petersburg are the West to Vladivostok the Pacific coast in the East. It is Asia’ most important route.
Significance of the Trans-Siberian railways are as follows:
It connects various important commercial and industrial centres such as Moscow, Ufa, Irkustsk, Chita etc. These centres are important for the economy of the region. In Asia, it is the longest as well as double tracked and electrified railways. Due to this, it is possible to link Asian and European markets. This railway line has connecting links further Les sth Southwards. It connects Odessa in Ukraine, Baku on the Caspian Coast, Tashkent in Uzbekistan etc. This railway line is important for trade and commerce between the continents of Asia and Europe. It provides integration of both continents in terms of their economy and society.
Q22. Which means of transport is extensively used for carrying water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids? Describe the network of this means of transport in the world.
Name the principal mode of transportation in the world which is used for carrying liquid and gaseous materials only. Mention any four characteristics of this mode of transportation.
Analyze any five points of importance of ‘pipelines’ as means of transportation.
Ans: The means of transport used extensively for carrying water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids is pipeline transport. Pipelines have the following characteristics:
(i) It is most convenient and efficient means of transporting liquids and gases over long distances
(ii) Pipelines can also transport solids after converting them into slurry (wet mixture).
(iii) Its initial set up cost is high, but after that, pipelines transport liquids and gases very cheaply.
(iv) It does not require much space.
(v) Pipelines are energy efficient and environment friendly.
Pipeline Network in the World
Pipeline network can be found in the following regions:
- In New Zealand, pipelines are also used to supply milk from farms to factories.
- USA has a dense network of oil pipelines which runs from producing areas to the
- In USA, about 17 per cent of all freight per tonne-km is carried through pipelines.
- In many parts of the world like Europe, Russia, West Asia and India pipelines are used to connect oil wells to refineries, and to ports or domestic markets. Pipelines are expanding very fast.
For example, Turkmenistan in Central Asia has extended pipelines to Iran and also to parts of China
- The proposed Iran-India via Pakistan international oil and natural gas pipeline will be the longest in the world.
Q23. Explain the significance of each of the transport and communication services available in the world.
Ans: Significance of various transport services are as follows:
Road Transport: It is cheaper and faster mode of transport over short distance and for doorto-door services.
Railways: It is best suited for bulky goods and passengers for long distances.
Water Transport: It is the cheapest mode of transport because of less friction of water. Ocean routes are cheaper for carrying of bulky material from one continent to another.
Air Transport: It is the fastest means of transportation. It is best suited for long distance travel and worldwide transportation of valuable cargo.
Pipelines: It is used to carry liquids and gases from the producing areas to the consuming areas.
Significance of various communication services are as follows:
Satellite Communication: In contemporary, world, satellite communication has become very important with Internet as the largest electronic network on the planet connecting about 1000 million people in more than 100 countries.
Cyber Space-Internet: This electronic network der has spread rapidly. The number of users has increased from 400 million in 2000 AD to over two billion in 2010. It has brought people from different parts of world closer to each other.
Q24 India has highly uneven patterns of population distribution. Justify this statement with four facts.
Ans. India has a highly uneven pattern of population distribution.
- Uttar Pradesh has the highest total population followed by Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
- Top 10 states together have about 76 per cent of the total India’s population.
- On the other hand, population is very small in the states like Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal even though they are large states.
- Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Peninsular States have moderate to high proportion of population.
Q25 Explain four distinct phases of growth of India’s population.
Ans. There are four distinct phases of growth identified:
- The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population
- In this period growth rate was very low, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911- 1921.
- Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
- Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large and in -efficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities were largely responsible for a high birth and death rates in this period.
- The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth.
- An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country brought down the mortality rate.
- At the same time better transport and communication system improved distribution system.
- The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to higher growth rate than the previous phase.
- The decades 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India,
- It was caused by a rapid fall in the death rate but a high birth rate.
- The average annual growth rate was as high as 2.2 per cent.
- High birth rate was due to developmental activities and growing economy which improved living condition of people.
- Beside it, due to increased international immigration from Tibet, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan growth rate was high.
- After 1981 till present, the growth rate has started slowing down gradually.
- It is due to decline in crude birth rate.
- It is also due to an increase in the mean age at marriage, improved quality of life particularly education of females in the country.
Q26. Suggest measures for reduction of land degradation.
Ans- The pressure on agricultural land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of quality of agricultural land. Soil erosion, water logging, Stalinization and alkalinisation of land lead to land degradation. Though all degraded land may not be wasteland, but unchecked process of degradation may lead to the conversion to wasteland.
There are two processes that induce land degradation. This are
Natural and created by human beings:-
- National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) has classified wastelands by using remote sensing techniques and it is possible to categorize these wastelands according to the processes that have created them. Some degradation which is caused by natural agents cannot be stopped
altogether, but the degraded land can be revived through reclamation processes.
- Land degradation like gullied/ ravenous land, desert or coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, and glacial areas are primarily caused by natural agents. There are other type of degraded land such as waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity and land with or without scrub, which have largely been caused by natural as well as human factors. There are some other types of wastelands such as degraded shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, and mining and industrial wastelands, are caused by human actions.
- Land degradation caused by human activities can be controlled by regulating and improving land use practices. Shifting agriculture and open grazing causes a large area of land to be degraded, therefore shifting cultivation and open grazing should be strictly banned. Regulations on use of fertilizers and other chemicals on the agricultural land should be strengthened. Mining activities, deforestation all leads to land degradation, therefore government needs to put strict checks on these practices. The best way to put a check on the land degradation and land revival is by educating the inhabitants of the area and having community based programmes aimed at checking land degradation and reviving the degraded
land. Under the various schemes of governments and aid of NGOs the community is organized in such a way to use sustainable and organic agricultural practices.
- Common property resource is revitalized, and its use is promoted. Planting patches of fodder grass so as to limit open grazing is a crucial step to curtail land degradation. Social fencing of the land leads to feeling of responsibility among the people and therefore protection of land.
Therefore community participation with public- government participation is the best method to contain land degradation. The best example from India for revival of degraded land is of the Jhabua district in the westernmost agro-climatic zone of Madhya Pradesh.
Q27 Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.
- A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants.
- Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
- In 2002, India received US $ 11 billion as remittances from international migrants. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
- The loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost.
- The market for advanced skills has become truly a global market and the most dynamic industrial economies are admitting and recruiting significant proportions of the highly trained professionals from poor regions.
- Consequently, the existing underdevelopment in the source region gets reinforced.
Q28 Discuss the major consequences of migration with reference to India.
- A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants.
- Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
- The amount of remittances sent by the internal migrants is very meager as compared to international migrants, but it plays an important role in the growth of economy of the source area.
- Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc.
- Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country.
- Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
- high out migration from Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states.
- Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.
- Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large.
- Negative consequences such as anonymity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.
- Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas.
- This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies.
- due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.
- In the rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women.
- the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost.
Q29. Discuss the features of different types of rural settlements with examples.
Ans: The Different types of rural settlements are:
- Clustered Settlements-It is a compact or closely built-up area of houses. Such Settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states. exGangetic plains of U.P.
- Semi-Clustered Settlements-In such settlements, the land-owning, and dominant community occupy the central part of the main village, whereas people of lower strata of society and manual workers settle on the outer flanks of the village. ex-Gujarat and Rajasthan plains.
- Hamleted Settlements-When Settlement is fragmented into several units bearing a common name. These units are locally called’ Panna, Para, Palli, Nagla, Dhani, etc.exChhattisgarh and lower valleys of the Himalayas.
- Dispersed Settlements-Such settlements appear in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Ex:- Meghalaya, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh.
Q30. Describe the functional classification of the town.
Ans. Functional Classification of Towns
On the basis of dominant or specialised functions, Indian cities and towns can be broadly classified as follows:
- Administrative towns and cities-Towns supporting administrative headquarters of higher order are administrative towns, such as Chandigarh, New Delhi, Bhopal, Shillong, Guwahati, Imphal, Srinagar, Gandhinagar,Jaipur Chennai, etc.
- Industrial towns- Industries constitute prime motive force of these cities such as Mumbai, Salem, Coimbatore,Modinagar, Jamshedpur, Hugli, Bhilai, etc.
- Transport Cities-They may be ports primarily engaged in export and import activities such as Kandla, Kochi,Kozhikode, Vishakhapatnam, etc. or hubs of transport such as Agra, Dhulia, Mughal Sarai, Itarsi, Katni,etc.
- Commercial towns-Towns and cities specialising in trade and commerce are kept in this class. Kolkata, Saharanpur, Satna, etc. are some examples.
- Mining towns- These towns have developed in mineral rich areas such as Raniganj, Jharia, Digboi, Ankaleshwar, Singrauli, etc.
- Garrisson Cantonment towns- These towns emerged as garrisson towns such as Ambala, Jalandhar, Mhow, Babina, Udhampur, etc.
- Educational towns- Starting as centres of education, some of the towns have grown into major campus towns such as Roorki, Varanasi, Aligarh, Pilani, Allahabad etc.
- Religious and cultural towns- Varanasi, Mathura, Amritsar, Madurai, Puri, Ajmer, Pushkar, Tirupati, Kurukshetra,Haridwar, Ujjain came to prominence due to their religious/cultural significance.
Q31. Define Rainwater Harvesting And Its Advantages.
Ans. Rain Water Harvesting Is A Method To Capture And Store Rainwater For Various Uses.
- It Is Also Used To Recharge Groundwater Aquifers.
- It Is A Low Cost And Eco-Friendly Technique
- Rainwater Harvesting Increases Water Availability,
- Checks The Declining Groundwater Table,
- Improves The Quality Of Groundwater,
- Controls Soil Erosion And Flooding.
Q32.What Do We Mean By Water Conservation? What Are Some Of The Measures By Which We Can Reduce And Reuse The Water?
Ans. Water Conservation Refers To The Practice Of Using Water Efficiently To Reduce Unnecessary Water Usage. Some Of The Measures By Which We Can Reduce And Reuse The Water Are As Follows:
- Recycle And Reuse Is A Simple And Best Way To Conserve Fresh Water And Make It Available For All.
- Industries Can Use Water Of Low Quality And Their Waste Water For Cooling And Fire Fighting, Which Can Decrease The Cost Of Water For Them And Conserve Fresh Water.
- Water Could Be Collected After Bathing And Washing Utensils, Washing Clothes And Cars Can Be A Better Option For Gardening..
Q33. Explain Any Three Factors Responsible For The Depletion Of Water Resources. Mention Any Two Measures Take By The Government To Control Water Pollution In India.
Ans. The Three Factors Responsible For The Depletion Of Water Resources In India Are As follows:
- Increasing Population Population In India Is Increasing With A Higher Growth Rate. This Growth Is Responsible For Decreasing The Availability Of Fresh Water And Per Capita Availability Of Water.
- Industrialization Has Increased Many Folds After Independence. It Created A Major Problem Of Water Pollution In India As Industrial Wastes Are Disposed of In Water Sources.
- Over Utilisation Of Ground, Water India Is An Agrarian Country. Thus, Water Is Required In High Amount For Irrigation In Agriculture. In The Irrigated Areas, Groundwater Is Used To Obtain Maximum Agriculture Output. Utilization Of Groundwater In These Areas Has Led To The Declining Of Groundwater Level
Some Of The Steps Taken By The Government To Control Water Pollution Are As Follows:
- Water (Prevention And Control Of Pollution Act Of 1974.
- Environment Protection Act (1986). These Acts Were Unsuccessful As In 1997, 251
- Polluting Factories Were Established Along The Rivers And Lakes.
- The Water Cess Act Of 1977.
Q34. How Does Scarcity Of Water Lead To Disputes?
- Approximately, 71 percent Of The Earth’s Surface Is Covered With It But Only 3% Of It Is Fresh Water. A Very Small Proportion Of Fresh Water Is Effectively Available For Human Use
- The Availability Of Fresh Water Varies Over Space And Time.
- The Tensions And Disputes On Sharing And Control Of This Scare Resource Are Becoming Issues Among Communities, Regions, And States.
- After Independence, Demand For Water Had Been Increasing Due To The Rapid Growth Of Population, Agricultural Development, Urbanization, Industrialization, Etc. These Developments Have Led To Several Inter-State Disputes About Sharing Of Water Of These Rivers. For Example, The The Cauvery Water Dispute Between Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, And Kerala, The Krishna Water Dispute Between Maharashtra, Karnataka, And Andhra Pradesh, Etc.
Q35. “Conservation of mineral resources is essential for the development of India”. Examine the statement.
Ans: Conservation of Minerals Resources
- Improvising the technology so that low-grade ores can be used profitably.
- By re-using, improving, and recycling methods, materials can be manufactured from minerals, and by replacing other materials as well.
- People can conserve mineral resources by utilizing renewable resources. For example, using hydroelectricity, wind, wave, geothermal energy and solar power as sources of energy may conserve mineral resources such as coal.
- The use of scrap is especially significant in metals like copper, lead, and zinc in which India’s reserves are meager.
- Export of strategic and scarce minerals must be reduced so that the existing
- Reserve may be used for a longer period.
- Sustainable development calls for the protection of resources for future generations.
Q36. Explain any five points about Nuclear Energy resources.
- Uranium and Thorium are important minerals for this energy. Uranium deposits occur in the Dharwar rocks.
- Uranium was found along with the Singhbhum copper belt. In Rajasthan Udaipur, Alwar, and Jhunjhunu districts.
- Uranium is also found in the Durg district of Chhatisgarh, the Bhandara district in Maharashtra.
- Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- The world’s richest monazite deposits occur in the Palakkad and Kollam districts of Kerala, near Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, and the Mahanadi river delta in Odisha.
- Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1948.
- The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka), and Kakarapara (Gujarat).
Q37 Briefly explain about ‘Integrated tribal development project in Bharmaur region’.
Ans: Case study- Integrated tribal development project in the Bharmaur region
- Bharmaur tribal area situated between PirPanjal in the north and Dhauladhar in the South comprises Bharmaur and holi Tehsils of Chamba of Himachal Pradesh.
- It is inhabited by Gaddi tribes who speak the Gaddi dialect and live in a very harsh climate.
- They are economically largely dependent on agriculture and sheep and goat rearing.
- The most significant contribution of the tribal sub-plan in the Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, Healthcare facilities, potable water, roads, communication and electricity.
- At present literacy rate has increased, the sex ratio has improved and child marriage has declined.
- Pastoralism is declining and transhumance practice has decreased.
Q38 What do you know about Sustainable Development? How did this term come to Light?
Ans: Sustainable Development
- Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment.
- In the post-World War II era, the concept of development was synonymous with economic growth which was measured in terms of GNP (Gross National Product), Per capita income and consumption.
- But, even the countries having high economic growth, experienced a speedy rise in poverty because of their unequal distribution. So, in the 1970s, the phrases such as redistribution with growth and growth and equity were incorporated into the definition of development.
- In the 1970s, it was realized that the concept of development cannot be restricted to
- the economic sphere alone So it included the well-being and living standard of people, availing of health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.
- The notion of sustainable development emerged in the wake of a general rise in the awareness of environmental issues in the late 1960s in Western World people.
- The publication of ‘The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich in 1968 and ‘The Limits to Growth’ by Meadows and others in 1972 further raised the level of fear among environmentalists in particular and people in general.
- This sets the scene for the emergence of new models of development under the broad phrase ‘sustainable development.’
- WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) headed by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland gave its report (Brundtland report) Our Common Future in 1987.
- The report defines Sustainable Development as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
- Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for the conservation of resources to enable future generations to use these resources.
Q39 What are various measures for the Promotion of Sustainable Development of the Indira Gandhi Canal?
Ans: Measures for Promotion of Sustainable Development-
- The first requirement is the strict implementation of a water management policy. There should be protective irrigation in stage 1 and extensive irrigation and pasture development in stage 2.
- People should be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
- To reduce the conveyance loss of water, there should be a Warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in command areas of the outlet)
- The areas affected by salinity and water logging should be reclaimed.
- The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary.
- Poor background people should be provided adequate financial and institutional support for the cultivation of land.
- Agriculture and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of the economy.
Q40. Describe the distribution of railways in India.
Ans: Distribution of Railways. A close look at the railway map of India in any atlas would reveal the following pattern of the railway network:
(1) Northern plains. A dense network of railways has been developed in the Northern Indian Plain from Amritsar to Howrah with a few focal points like Delhi- Kanpur-Mughal-Sarai, Lucknow, Agra and Patna. A dense network of railways is developed in the north Indian plains. About 50% of the total length of railways in India is found in northern India. The northern railways are the longest railway with a length of 10,977 kms. Many physical and economic factors are responsible for it.
- Northern plain is a level plain with low altitude. It is best suited for construction of railway.
- Due to dense population, big towns have developed which have led to high density of railway.
- The intensive development of agriculture and industries h as promoted the construction of railway lines.
- It is essential to connect Mumbai and Kolkata with their hinterlands of northern plain.
(2) Peninsular plateau. The peninsular region, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu have a denser rail network as compared to other parts. The whole of the peninsular region has a hilly and plateau terrain. The concentration of population is moderate. Therefore, the rail network is also sparse. Trunk routes are aligned in such a way that there are efficient connections between Mumbai-Chennai, Chennai-Cochin, Chennai- Delhi and Chennai-Hyderabad.
(3) Coastal plains. There is a distinct contrast in the rail network between eastern coastal plains and western coastal plains. There exists a long trunk route all along the east coast. Such a rail track is the Konkan Railway of 837 km. long which has been built along the western coast from Mumbai to Cochin.
- The outcrops of the Western Ghats being very close to the coast, restrict the extent of the coastal plain while the eastern coast is wider and the Ghats lie away from the coast.
(4) Areas with sparse Rail network. Himalayas, west Rajasthan, Brahmaputra valley, North East hilly region have sparse rail-network.
- Himalayan Region. The mountainous terrain of the Himalayas is such a noteworthy region. The rugged terrain, hill and valley topography, backward economy and sparse population are the factors responsible for the sparse rail network in this region.
- Western Rajasthan. In western Rajasthan a few metre gauge railway lines have penetrated the arid tract.
- Brahmaputra valley. The Brahmaputra Valley has two parallel lines but no railway line has been constructed on the Meghalaya plateau.
- N.E. Region. In Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland, no railways have been constructed. The main reasons for the absence of a railway network are the hilly terrain and forested tracts. The cost involved in providing railway tracks in these regions is too high. The sparse population is another important aspect which has not encouraged this investment.
Q41. Describe the major oil and gas pipelines of India.
1. Naharkatiya Barauni pipeline. Oil India Limited constructed the first pipeline of 1,152 km from Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati (1962-68).
2. Haldia-Kanpur pipeline. To transport refined petroleum products. Barauni-Kanpur pipeline was laid down in 1966. Haldia-Maurigram-Rajbandh pipeline was constructed later.
3. Ankleshwar-Koyali pipeline. Extensive network of pipelines has been constructed in the Gujarat region. First pipeline connected the Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery (1965). Later, Kalol-Sabarmati crude pipeline, the Navagaon-Kalol-Koyali pipeline and the Mumbai
High-Koyali pipeline were laid.
4. Ahmedabad-Koyali pipeline. Ahmedabad has been linked with Koyali by pipeline for transport of petroleum products.
5. Ankleshwar-Vadodara pipeline. Gas pipelines have also been laid down between Khambhat and Dhuvaran, Ankleshwar and Uttaran, and Ankleshwar and Vadodara. Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) operates over 4,200 km of pipeline in the country and
supplies gas to power plants.
6. HBJ gas pipeline. Construction of a cross country 1,750 km long Hazira-BijapurJagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline has already been completed. This pipeline has now been extended from Bijapur to Dadri in Uttar Pradesh.
7. Kandla-Delhi pipeline. GAIL is also implementing a 1,246 km long LPG pipeline project from Kandla/Jamnagar in Gujarat to Luni in Uttar Pradesh via Delhi.
8. Mathura-Jalandhar pipeline. The Mathura refinery gets its crude from the Mumbai High through pipeline, which extends from Salaya on the Gulf of Kachchh to Mathura, Petroleum product supply pipeline exists between Mathura and Jalandhar via Delhi and Ambala, and between Mumbai and Pune for the transport of petroleum products.
Q42. Describe the main features of development of roads in India.
Ans: The history of roads construction in India is very old. Sher Shah Suri constructed Grand Trunk Road. After independence, a 10 year road development scheme known as the Nagpur Plan, was prepared. Four types of roads are found in India:
- National Highways (79,2