# Author name: Manoj Pandey

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## Zeroth Law Of Thermodynamics

This law was formulated by RH Fowler in 1931. The Zeroth law of thermodynamics state that if two system A and B are separated in thermal equilibrium with a third system C, then A and B in thermal equilibrium with each other. If two system A and B separated by an adiabatic wall. They are […]

## Thermal Expansion

When heat is supplied to material, its dimensions(length, area, volume) can be changed due to change in its temperature.The phenomenon of change in dimensions of an object due to heat supplied is known as thermal expansion. Types Of Thermal Expansion There are three types of thermal expansion.(I) Linear Expansion(II) Area Expansion(III) Volume Expansion (I) Linear

## Absolute Temperature

Absolute Zero Temperature Theoretically, there is no limit for maximum temperature but there is a sharp point for minimum temperature that no body can have the temperature lower than this minimum value of temperature which is known as absolute zero temperature. Absolute Zero Temperature From p-T Graph The variation of pressure(P) with temperature(T) can be

## Ideal Gas Equation

There are three characteristics of gas which describe its behaviour. These are pressure(P), volume(V) and temperature(T). The relation among pressure, volume and temperature of a gas is given by these two laws. (1) Boyle’s Law It is given by English chemist Robert Boyle (1627-1691). According to this law at constant temperature, pressure is inversely proportional

## Longitudinal Waves

These are the waves in which the individual particles of the medium oscillate along the direction of wave propagation. We consider a long hollow cylinder AB closed at one end and having a movable piston at the other end. If we suddenly move the piston rapidly towards right, a small layer of air just near

## Transverse Wave

These are the waves in which the individual particles of the medium oscillate perpendicular to the direction of the wave propagation. Example: Waves in string, ripples on the surface of water, movement of sting of stringed musical instruments like sitar, guitar etc. We consider a horizontal string with its one end fixed to a rigid

## Propagation Of Sound Wave Through Air and Solid

Propagation Of Sound Wave Through Air A small region of air can be considered as a spring. It is connected to the neighbouring regions or springs. As sound wave travels through air, it compresses or expands a small region of air. This changes the density and pressure of the region. According to Boyle’s law Change

## Spring Model For The Propagation Of A Wave

We consider a collection of springs connected to one another and one end is fixed to a rigid support. If the spring at one end is pulled suddenly and released, the disturbance travels to the other end. The reason behind this is when the first spring is pulled, it gets stretched. Due to elasticity, a

## Degree Of Freedom

The total number of co-ordinate or independent quantities required to describe completely the position and configuration of a dynamic system is known as number of degree of freedom of the system. It is represented by f and expressed as (I) In case of monoatomic gas, such a helium, neon, organ, kripton, etc have translational degree

## Kinetic Theory Of Ideal Gas

All matter is made up of molecules. The molecules of a gas are in state of rapid and continuous motion. Their velocity depends on temperature. Using this molecular motion, various properties of a gas like pressure, temperature, energy etc, can be explained. Hence this theory is called kinetic theory of gases which was developed by

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