Chapter-1|Electric Charges and Fields | NCERT 12th Physics:
Electrostatic Force Due to Continuous Charge Distribution:
The reason in which charges are closely spaced is said to be have continuous charge distribution of charge. Continuous charge distribution is of three types.
1. Linear Charge Distribution:
If a charge distribution is distributed along one dimensional curve then it is called linear charge distribution.
If λ is linear charge density and dl is small element length. Then total charge in dl length element = λdl, then
Electric force at a point due to Linear charge distribution is given by-
2. Surface Charge Density or Distribution:
If charges distributed spread over a two-dimensional surface S then it is called surface charge distribution.
If σ is surface charge density per unit surface area and ds is small surface element, Then electric force at a point due to surface charge distribution is given by-
3. Volume Charge Distribution:
If charge distributed spread over three-dimensional volume, then it is called volumetric charge distribution.
If ρ is the volume charge density per unit volume and dv is small volume element, then
Electric force at a point due to volume charge distribution is given by-