**Chapter-1|Electric Charges and Fields | NCERT 12th Physics:**

**Electrostatic Force Due to Continuous Charge Distribution:**

The reason in which charges are closely spaced is said to be have continuous charge distribution of charge. Continuous charge distribution is of three types.

**1. Linear Charge Distribution:**

If a charge distribution is distributed along one dimensional curve then it is called linear charge distribution.

If λ is linear charge density and dl is small element length. Then total charge in dl length element = λdl, then

Electric force at a point due to Linear charge distribution is given by-

**2. Surface Charge Density or Distribution:**

If charges distributed spread over a two-dimensional surface S then it is called surface charge distribution.

If σ is surface charge density per unit surface area and ds is small surface element, Then electric force at a point due to surface charge distribution is given by-

**3. Volume Charge Distribution:**

If charge distributed spread over three-dimensional volume, then it is called volumetric charge distribution.

If ρ is the volume charge density per unit volume and dv is small volume element, then

Electric force at a point due to volume charge distribution is given by-

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