Chapter-1|Electric Charges and Fields | NCERT 12th Physics:
Electrostatics: Electrostatics is the study of electric charges at rest. Here we study the forces, fields, and potentials associated with the static charges.
Electric Charges: Electric charge in an intrinsic property of elementary particles of matter which gives rise to the electric force between various objects.
Electric charge is a scalar quantity. Its SI unit is Coulomb(C). A Proton has positive charge(+e) and an electron has negative charge(-e).
e = 1.6×10⁻¹⁹ C
Large-scale matter that consists of equal number of electron and proton is electrically neutral. If there is an excess of electrons, the body has a negative charge and an excess of proton results in a positive charge.