Gravitational potential at a point in the gravitational field is defined as the amount of work done in bringing a body of unit mass from infinity to that point without acceleration.
Negative sign indicate that the direction of intensity is in the direction where the potential decreases. It is a scalar quantity and it’s SI unit is joule/kg.
Expression For Gravitational Potential
Let the earth be perfect sphere of radius R and mass M, can be supposed to be concentrated at its centre O. The gravitational potential at point Q can be calculated. Where OQ=r and r>R.
We take two points A and B, So that OA= x and AB= dx.