Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Chapter-9|Ray Optics and Optical Instrument|NCERT 12th Physics:

Refraction at a Spherical Surface:

We will consider two transparent medium of refractive index n₁ and  n₂, the boundary between two surfaces is a spherical surface of radius R.


1. All the rays are paraxial, that means P and P’ are coincide.

2. θ₁ and  θ₂ are very small angle.

3. α, β and γ are also very very small angle.

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Note: n₁ is refractive index Jis medium se ray aa rahi hai.

n₂ is refractive index jis medium me ray aa rahi hai.

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