Chapter-1|Electric Charges and Fields | NCERT 12th Physics:
The Field of an Electric Diopole:
The electric field produced by an electric dipole is called a dipole field.
This can be determined by using:
(a) The formula for the field of a point charge and
(b) The principle of superposition.
At a Point on The Axial Line:
Let we consider an electric dipole consisting of charges +q and -q are separated by distance 2l and placed in vacuum. let P be a point on the axial line at a distance x from the centre O of the dipole on the side of the charge +q.
Resultant electric field intensity at the point P.
At a point on the Equatorial Line:
Let an electric dipole consisting of two point charges +q and -q separated by a small distance 2l with Centre O. And a dipole moment-
p = q×2l
Since vector EASinθ and EBSinθ are opposite in direction so, it will cancel out to each other. Therefore resultant electric field will be obtained only from cos component.
Now, Resultant electric field intensity at point Q.