**Chapter-8|Electromagnetic Waves|NCERT 12th Physics:**

**Maxwell’s Equations:**

Maxwell’s equations are the basic laws of electric city and Magnetism.

All the basic principles of electromagnetism can be explained in terms of four fundamental equations call maxwell’s equations.

Maxwell did not discovered four equations, but he worked on them and stated that these four fundamental equations define complete electromagnetism.

**1. Gauss’ Law in Electrostatics:**

This law states that the total electric flux through any closed surface is always equal to 1/ε₀ times the net charge enclosed by that surface.

**2. Gauss’ Law of Magnetism:**

This law state that the net magnetic flux through any closed surface is always zero.

**Note: **Electric flux through any closed surface is not zero because +q and -q exist separately.

**3. Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction:**

This law states that the induced EMF produced in a circuit is numerically equal to rate of change of magnetic flux through it. Or

Changing magnetic field induces an electric field.

**4. Ampere Maxwell’s Circuital Law:**

Changing electric field induces a magnetic field.

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