CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 Most Imp Questions

CBSE 12th Geography Term -2 2022: Most Important Questions With Their Answers

In this post I have provided CBSE class 12 Geography Term- 2 Most Important 3 and 5 Marks Questions with answers for board exam 2022. As you know CBSE will conduct Term 2 Geography Board Exam for class 12 on 18th May 2022. Now here all of you can check for additional 3 and 5 marks questions which are given below and learn or understand before going for your CBSE Class 12th Term 2 board exam.

Given below are the most important questions with answer.

CBSE Class 12 Geography Term-2
CBSE Class 12 Geography Term-2

Que 1. Explain retail-trading service.

Answer: This is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most of the retail trading take place in fixed establishments or stores solely devoted to selling. It includes small shops, consumer cooperatives, chain stores, departmental stores. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks, door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic vending machines and internet are examples of non-store retail selling.

Que 2. Describe quaternary services.

Answer: Quaternary services are the developed form of services. These include specific knowledge, technical skill, competence of communication and administrative competence. Advantages:1. Countries develop economically advance.2. These activities involve a small but growing proportion of population.3. The vast majority of employment is found in information technology.

Que 3. What is the digital divide?

Answer: Opportunities emerging from the Information and Communication Technology based development is unevenly distributed across the globe. There are wide ranging economic, political and social differences among countries. Digital divide is the difference in opportunities available to people at different places arising because of differential availability of information and communication infrastructure.

Que 4. Define consumer cooperatives, departmental stores & chain stores.

Answer:  Consumer cooperatives: A cooperative business which is owned by its consumers for mutual sharing of benefit, after setting aside money for investment, is known as consumer cooperative. Consumer cooperatives often take form of the retail outlets which are owned and managed by their consumers.

Departmental stores: Departmental stores are large retail establishments which have large collection of variety of goods, all organised under specific department heads. A distinct feature of this kind of retail establishment is the organizing of separate departments, under same roof to facilitate buying, customer service, merchandising and control.

Chain Stores: These are retail stores owned by a single firm and spread over vast geographical areas across nation or worldwide. Chain stores are usually characterized by similar service and infrastructural environment, involving similar architecture, store desigfe, layout and choice of products.

Que 5. Discuss the significance and growth of the service sector in modern economic development.

Answer: Services occur at many different levels. Some are geared to industry, some to people; and some to both industry and people, e.g. the transport systems. Low-order services, such as grocery, shops and laundries, are more common and widespread than high-order services or more specialized ones like those of accountants, consultants and physicians. Services are provided to individual consumers who can afford to pay for them. For example the gardener, the launderers and the barber do primarily physical labour. Teacher, lawyers, physicians, musicians and others perform mental labour.

Service sector is well developed in regions where there is high technological and educational know how. There is an increase in international trade of services. Services once generated can be easily availed by many and provide high monetary value in terms of wages, service charges etc. As a country develops, more and more people shift to tertiary activities and the share of tertiary activities in the GDP is even faster. Service sector provides the most lump some amount of foreign exchange and income for the country. Therefore service sector is a major contributor in the modern economic development.

Que 6. Difference between Physical Geography and Human Geography.


Physical GeographyHuman Geography
(i) Physical Geography is the branch of geography dealing with natural features.(i) Human Geography is the branch of geography dealing with how human activities influence the culture, communities, economies, etc.
(ii) Geomorphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Biogeography, Geography of soils, are the branches of Physical Geography.(ii) Historical Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Behavioural Geography, Social Geography and Population Geography are the branches of Human Geography.
(iii) Physical geography is natural science.(iii) Human geography is a social science.

Que 7. Define manufacturing. List the characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing.

Answer: Manufacturing literally means “to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ‘made by machines’. It is essentially a process that involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets. Modern large scale manufacturing has the following characteristics: Specialization of Skills/Methods of Production: Under the ‘craft’ method factories produce only a few pieces which are made-to-order. So the costs are high. On the other hand, mass production involves the production of large quantities of standardized parts by each worker performing only one task repeatedly.

Mechanization: Mechanization refers to using gadgets that accomplish tasks. Automation (without the aid of human thinking during the manufacturing process) is the advanced stage of mechanization. Technological Innovation: Technological innovations through research and development strategy are an important aspect of modern manufacturing for quality control, eliminating waste and inefficiency, and combating pollution. Organisational Structure and Stratification: Modern manufacturing is characterized by:

  • a complex machine technology
  • extreme specialization and division of labour for producing more goods with less effort, and low costs
  • vast capital
  • large organisations
  • executive bureaucracy.

Que 8. What are the characteristics of traditional large scale Industrial regions?

Answer: Traditional large scale industrial regions are based on heavy industry, often located near coal fields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacture, or textile production. These industries are now known as smokestack industries. Traditional industrial regions can be recognized by:

  • A high proportion of employment in the manufacturing industry. High-density housing, often of inferior type, and poor services. Unattractive environment, for example, pollution, waste heaps, and so on.
  • Problems of unemployment, emigration, and derelict land areas caused by the closure of factories because of a worldwide fall in demand.

Que 9. Discuss the significance and growth of the service sector in modern economic development.

Answer: The significance and growth of the service sector in the modern economic development is discussed below:

(i) Services are usually defined as ‘activities’ which are relatively detached from material production and hence are not directly involved in the processing of physical materials. Thus they stand in contrast to manufacturing, the product of which can be seen in the form of goods.

(ii) Services are an important constituent of modern economic development, which include retailing and sale of goods to the people, education, health and welfare, leisure, recreation and business services. Business services include advertising, recruitment and personal training. Service sector was not given as much attention as was given to the production of goods. But in advanced countries service based development has been very rapid.

(iii) During the development process, a normal course of events take place in most countries over a period of time. There is a transition from dominance of primary sector, to the secondary sector, and in the later stage to the tertiary and quaternary sectors. But Japan and Germany are still able to manufacture successfully for world markets from a home base. Even in such countries the role of manufacturing, employment and also as a proportion of GNP, declines eventually. It is balanced by concomitant rise of the service sector.

(iv) The growing importance of services has now given it an independent status as a productive sector in the economy. Instead of being an accessary to manufacturing or to the people at large it is an exporter. The competitive advantage of some countries such as Switzerland and the U.K., and of some regions or cities is in service provisions.

Que 10. Which is the busiest sea route in the world. Describe its four characteristics?

Answer: The North-Atlantic sea route is one of the busiest sea routes in the world, as it connects the world’s two most developed regions of the world, the eastern part of Canada and the USA to Western Europe in the East.The four features of the North-Atlantic sea routes are :

(i)Both the coasts have good port and harbour facilities.
(ii)Foreign trade over this sea route is greater than that of the rest of the world.
(iii)About one-fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route.
(iv)Due to its business it is called the “Big Trunk Route’. It also serves more countries and people than any other route.

Que 11. “The Suez and the Panama canals are two vital man-made navigation canals which serve as gateways of commerce for both the eastern and western worlds.” In the light of this statement explain the economic significance of these two canals. 

Answer: Economic Importance of the Suez and the Panama Canals

The Suez Canal:

(i) It has given Europe a new gateway to Indian Ocean and Australia.

(ii) It has shortened the distance thereby saving time and fuel.

(iii) It has become cheaper as compared to Cape of Good Hope route.

(iv) Suez is sea level canal.

The Panama Canal:

(i) This canal has linked Eastern America with Western America.

(ii) It also links Europe with Western America.

(iii) It has shortened distance between Europe and Western America.

(v) There are locks in the canal in spite of it is more economical.

Que 12. Where is copper found in India?

Answer: Copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan. Minor deposits in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Que 13. Why is India endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources?

Answer: India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure. Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of pre-palaezoic age and are mainly associated with metamorphic and igneous rocks of the peninsular India.

Que 14. Distinguish between Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals.


BasisFerrous MineralsNon-ferrous Minerals
MeaningFerrous mineral refers to iron. All those minerals which have iron content are called ferrous minerals.Those minerals which do not have iron content are non-ferrous.
ExampleIron ore itself, manganese, chromite, etc.Copper, bauxite, iron, gold, etc.

Que 15. What do you mean by regional planning?

Answer: Regional planning means formulation and implementation of schemes or programmes for the development of backward region to reduce regional imbalance in the development.

Que 16. Mention the issues included in the concept of development.

Answer: The issues included in the concept of development are as improving the well¬being and living standard of people, availing of health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.

Que 17. Mention the important features of Hill Area Development Programmes.


  • Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Year Plan.
  • It covered 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Assam, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.
  • The hill areas in the country having height above 600 metres and not covered under tribal subplan be treated as Backward Hill Areas.
  • These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.

Que 18. Mention the important features of Drought Prone Area Programmes.


  • This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan.
  • Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas.
  • The objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets.
  • This programmes laid emphasis on the construction of labour intensive civil works. Irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
  • Other strategies include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at micro level.
  • The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants and human population.

Que 19. Describe the role and importance of the railway in the economic development of India?

Answer: Role of Railways in the development of country: 

(i) Indian Railways network is one of the longest in the world. It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of economy. 

(ii) It is the largest government undertaking in the country, with the network of 64,460 km, as on 31 March 2011. 

(iii) Areas around towns, raw material producing areas, plantation and other commercial crops, hill stations, garrison towns were connected by railways during the British colonial era. 

(iv) After Independence, railway routes have been extended to other areas too. The most significant development has been the development of Konkan Railway along the western coast providing a direct link between Mumbai and Mangalore. 

(v) Railway continues to remain as the main means of transport all over the country. Its network is relatively less dense in the hill states, north eastern states, central parts of India and Rajasthan. Other than transport, Indian railways brought people of diverse cultures together to contribute to India’s freedom struggle.

Que 20. Explain with five suitable examples, how the level of economic development and nature of terrain affect the density of roads in India.

Answer: Nature of terrain and level of economic development affect the density of roads in the following ways:

  1. Construction of roads in plains is easy and cheaper than compare to hilly and mountainous areas, that’s why Indo-Gangetic plains have a high density of roads.
  2. Difficult terrain, the thick forest does not provide, suitable conditions for the development of roads. That’s the reason for having a low density of roads in Himalayan and North-Eastern region.
  3. Sandy soil is also a restriction in the development of roads, that’s the reason for having less density of roads in Western Rajasthan.
  4. Economic development also affects the density of roads. Karnataka plateau and Maharashtra have a density of roads due to the high concentration of industries and urbanisation in these areas.
  5. A high density of 50-100 km (per 100 sq km) of the area is also found in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh of Northern Plains. This is due to advanced agriculture, industry and urbanisation in these areas.

Que 21. How is environmental pollution caused? Mention four types of pollution responsible for environmental degradation.

Answer: Pollution is the contamination of the environment by the introduction of contaminants that can cause damage to the environment and harm or discomfort to humans or other living species.

It is the addition of another form of any substance or form of energy to the environment at a faster rate than that the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown recycling or shortage in some harmless form.

The four type of environmental pollutions are:1. Air Pollution: The composition of air is being altered by undesirable chemicals physical and biological elements.
2. Water Pollution: Pollution of water has caused far reaching implications. It is serious problems in metropolitian like Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai.
3. Land Pollution: Land is degraded due to over use. Depletion of land is caused by soil erosion and pollutants.
4. Noise Pollution: Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings which is caused by noise from different sources.

Que 22. Explain any three consequences of air pollution.

Answer: The main consequences of air pollution are as follows:

  1. Air pollution is responsible for many diseases that cause harm to our respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
  2. Air pollution is responsible for creating a smoky fog over cities which is known as urban smog. It also has negative effects on human health.
  3. Air pollution is also responsible for acid rains. The first rain after summers in urban area always shows acidic nature of rainwater i.e. it shows a lower pH level than the subsequent rain.
  4. Air pollution may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.
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